Weed Control Methods and
Science Presented by Ergonica
|What kinds of
weeds do you have? How do you get rid of
them? Here you can discover the scientific names
and descriptions of your own troublesome weeds. Learn about
weed names and weed control methods by viewing pictures of weeds in many
of the over 200 Weed
Identification References by State or Province in North America.
For a state-by-state list of noxious weeds, see the US Department of Agriculture Invaders Database System. Beautifully illustrated reference books about weeds in various regions, are also listed in the Ergonica Garden Books page.
Lawn Conversion means different things to different folks. To some it means seasonal changes to different grasses every year. To others it means going native, that is getting rid of high-cost lawns in favor of low-cost native plant gardens. To land managers, as in public parks and conservatories, it means using public lands to benefit the consumers without maintaining costly grass lawns in areas where lawns are not really appreciated or necessary.
Are your weeds officially categorized as noxious weeds? What is a noxious weed? Detailed online images make some weeds even look beautiful! Invasive weeds often spread exponentially. Most weeds originally were spread from Europe and the Middle East. They may have grown unnoticed for many years. This initial incubation period was followed by a firestorm of growth across several states. The Bureau of Land Management estimates that noxious weeds are consuming 4600 acres per day on western public lands. In agriculture, it has been estimated that nearly ten billions of dollars in crop yield are lost each year because of noxious weeds.
Information about what tools to use for weeding and how to use them is also available on this site.
Join us for an educational tour of The World of Weeds by exploring the information that follows. This includes weeding tips, scientific studies of where weeds come from, agricultural and horticultural methods to control weeds, sites that list and categorize weeds of all types. Special tips for Garden Weeding Tips - Special Weed Removal Tips for Seniors who increasingly turn to gardening for enjoyment and recreation are also included.
Is Lawn Conversion In Your Future?
Maybe you should Go Native!
That is, Convert Your Lawn to Native Plants!
See all kinds of WEEDERS and garden tools
What Types of Weeders do you need?
See over 200 Weed Identification References by State or Province in North America
|Some people enjoy
getting their hands in the dirt and others would rather
use a tool or chemicals to help get the job done more
The information available about weeds may be an overkill if all you're looking for is a simple solution to removing dandelions. If you enjoy the look and feel of beautifully illustrated paper books, you should also see our special selection of weed tips and organic gardening titles from Amazon.com,
|We have also included a link to a toxic plant database from the University of Illinois Veterinary Medicine Library. Although toxic plants are not necessarily weeds, it's important to know which plants could cause harm to you, your children, your pets, or other critters in the neighborhood, if eaten.|
|Spend a few minutes looking at each link below to become familiar with the types of information available.||See the Ergonica Weed Identification Reference Matrix for a comprehensive table of over 200 weeds references in North America.|
A Natural Lawn Care Herbicide - Corn Gluten Meal: Corn gluten meal prevents sprouting seeds from developing normal roots. This does not directly kill the seedlings, but makes them susceptible to dehydration if the soil gets dry. Established plants are not affected. Pesticide.org - Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticide Growing Houseplants Without Using Pesticides: ...about 75 percent of American families have plants in their homes. Occasionally these plants have problems with pests, but it’s not necessary to use pesticides when this happens. Pesticide.org - Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticide Vinegar as an Organic Weed Killer: A recent Lewiston Tribune article has sparked a lot of local interest in the promise of vinegar as an herbicide. Yes, even regular household vinegar works! Since the number of organic products available for killing unwanted weeds is extremely limited, the vinegar solution is a most welcome addition. Moscow Food Co-op, Patricia Diaz, from the July 2002 Newsletter Weed out those 'plants out of place' organically: I get many questions about how to control weeds in lawns and gardens organically and selectively. Honestly, that presents a challenge, but with a little patience and dedication, satisfactory results are achievable. HeraldTribune.com, Joe Lamp'l DIY Network July 22, 2007 The Pesticide Problem: The City of Belleville’s current battle over creating a pesticide bylaw is not an isolated one. The war on pesticides is currently being fought in council chambers and public meetings across this country (Canada). To date, an estimated 125 municipalities in six provinces have pesticide bylaws. Your Earth Blogspot, Suzanne Elston March 13, 2007 National Lawn Conversion Program: Our society's fixation with lawns causes considerable environmental problems including water depletion, pesticide and herbicide pollution, habitat degradation, and threats to biodiversity. Conservation Science Institute Smart Growth Naturescaping What is Lawn Conversion? Many homeowners today are choosing to convert their lawns or a section of their lawns to a more natural state. This includes planting hardy native plant species of grasses, shrubs, wildflowers and/or trees, which require less maintenance than the conventional bright green lawn. EcoCityCleveland.org, Cleveland Ohio Lawn Conversion: Enhancing your backyard while helping the River! Native plants are those that have always grown in our area of Wayne, Michigan and thus have adapted to our climate and soil conditions. These plants save you time and money because they require less upkeep and fertilizer and fare better over a harsh winter than other plants. Rouge River Watershed, Wayne, Michigan East Mesa makes switch: On July 25 staff from Mesa’s utilities conservation department rolled out a revamped rebate program. The city will pay homeowners $500 for getting rid of grass in favor of a xeriscape yard. To receive the rebate, homeowners must remove at least 500 square feet of grass and re-landscape with plants requiring less water. A list of acceptable plants, along with a rebate application, is available at www.cityofmesa.org/utilities/conservation. Newszap.com Angela De Welles, Independent Newspapers, Mesa Arizona, September 17, 2007 Lawn Care for Cleaner Air - Landscaping Awards Program: Are you interested in trying a different approach to lawn care that would mean less work and pollution while providing more beauty and wildlife habitat in your backyard or corporate lawns? Operating a typical (4 HP) gasoline-powered lawnmower for one hour produces as much smog-forming hydrocarbons as driving an average car almost 200 miles under average conditions (more than the distance from Louisville to Nashville). LouisvilleKy.org, Louisville, Kentucky, June 10, 2007 Lawn Care Practices for a Healthy Watershed: Eight Steps to a Healthy and Attractive Lawn with Less Maintenance and Fewer Chemicals: To reduce the maintenance requirements of a lawn and address problem areas where turf is difficult to grow, property owners can identify areas where turf grass can be replaced with other types of plantings. These areas may include lawn edges, frost pockets, exposed areas, dense shade, steep slopes, and wet areas. The best way to keep weeds at bay is to maintain a healthy, dense lawn that shades the ground surface, preventing weed seedlings from taking root. However, if weeds do take hold, they should be dug or pulled out. Chemical herbicides should only be used to spot treat persistent weeds, not applied universally. Think Blue - Connecticut River Stormwater Subcommittee Dawn of a New Lawn: There are plenty of things to do with your yard. And mowing the grass doesn't have to be one of them. As wilderness shrinks and backyard acreage increases, we all have an increasingly important role to play in preventing extinctions and promoting biodiversity in our own yards Audubon Backyard, Andy Wasowski SHRINK Your Lawn Method #4: Let Her Run Wild: A great way to reduce yard work and water use, create a more interesting landscape, and increase wildlife habitat all at the same time is to restore some of your property to a self-sustaining natural ecosystem. LessLawn.com, Evelyn J. Hadden, August 4, 2001 Going Native: The trend to convert unused lawn to natural areas can increase recreational potential and solves many management problems. While lawn is an important component of sports areas, its ability to provide space for many other forms of recreation is actually very limited. With this idea in mind, many parks and nature centers in the Midwest are beginning to convert their un-used lawn to native landscaping as a way to provide space for other forms of recreation, including outdoor classrooms for the study of native plants and animals. Recreation Management, Jack Pizzo, Chris Hauser and Cory Ritterbusch East Lawn Conversion to Native Planting Area: By converting the lawn into a native garden area, we will benefit from lower maintenance costs, more interesting appearance, community interest and cohesion, and reduced use of fertilizers and chemicals. Gannett Fleming Environmental Sustainability Policy San Jose Lawn to Natives Conversion: In contrast to the lawn-centric design, this mature garden requires only bi-annual trimming, semi-annual weeding, and about 4 deep waterings per year. Stephanie Morris, Landscape Architect, San Jose, California Pesticide-Free Parks: In May 2005, the Lawrence City Commission requested the Parks and Recreation Department to select a park to conduct a pilot program, maintaining it as a pesticide-free area for a one-year period. Lawrence Parks and Recreation staff chose Watson Park in Downtown Lawrence. City of Lawrence Parks and Recreation Department Bisbee City Council maintains no-herbicide policy for park: Though the parks and recreation committee had requested the council amend its policy on non-herbicide use in the city to tackle the weed problem in Vista Park with Round-Up, the City Council unanimously voted to remain with the current policy of no herbicides and no pesticides. A number of Bisbee residents spoke out against the use of herbicides citing health risks to children, unknown long-term dangers and the alleged toxic brew that can occur when Round-Up breaks down in certain types of soil. Sierra Vista Herald - Bisbee Daily Review, Shar Porier June 20, 2007 Clean Air Award presented to Central Lincoln People's Utility District: Central Lincoln People's Utility District was presented on Monday with the first Clean Air Award by the local group Concerned Citizens for Clean Air (CCCA) for dramatically reducing herbicide use at the district's substations. Prior to 2004, Central Lincoln applied an average total of 1,100 to 1,200 gallons per year of a herbicide dilution containing several different chemicals, sometimes including diuron, which can harm aquatic life and is considered by EPA to be a "known/likely" carcinogen. Newportnewstimes.com Newport, Oregon October 10, 2007 Backyard Pollution Prevention: Why convert your lawn? Lawns equal little wildlife benefit, erosion and chemicals. Native plants are adapted, require less maintenance. Reduces water consumption. (See page 26 of PDF document). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environmental Resource Program, Carolina Environmental Program Turf Lawn Conversion: In spring 2007 Virginia Tech will convert 13 areas of campus, totaling just over 35 acres, from regularly maintained turf grass lawn to low maintenance native grass meadows and wildflowers. The result of converting unused turf areas to meadows include reducing fossil fuel use and emissions; improving storm water infiltration; enhancing wildlife habitats and improving the look of the converted areas. Physical Plant Operations @ Virginia Tech April, 2007 Natural Weed Control? A thick cover of native plants, such as the potentilla and strawberries shown here, can help to choke out weeds. However, corn gluten looks like a promising way to prevent weed seeds from germinating in early spring, when coverage may not be so lush. Wild Flora's Wild Gardening July 15, 2007 Natural lawn, garden worth the labor: A few weeks into my experiment with using only natural products on the lawn and in my garden, things are looking just fine, thanks. I usually devote a few minutes a day to pulling up nut grass (nut sedge), thistles and other flower bed weeds. According to K-State Research and Extension, pulling nut sedge by hand is just as effective as using herbicides. It's a myth that hand pulling makes it spread faster. FortWayne.com McClatchy Newspapers, Cindy Hoedel June 7, 2007 Grass Warfare: Is what you put on your lawn your own business? Growing local movements say using pesticides is a choice that affects the whole neighborhood. The battle over how 'green' your grass should be. Neighborhood activists argue that using pesticides on one lawn exposes everyone nearby to the chemicals, including kids and pets. See video. The Wall Street Journal Online, Gwendolyn Bounds, July 7, 2007 Expert Advice for an Organic Lawn: Since starting the chemical-free journey back in April, I have wrestled with wily weeds, a digging dog and neighbors who mocked my slow progress -- emphasis on the "slow" because that is the greatest hurdle to this process, I have discovered. The Wall Street Journal Online, Gwendolyn Bounds, July 29, 2006 Organic Lawn Care: Not for Wimps: Six months ago I began a quest to turn my lawn-care regimen organic. This hot landscaping trend -- using things like chicken manure and plant fibers instead of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides -- is driven partly by Americans' infatuation with all things green but also by studies questioning the safety of lawn chemicals for children, pets and the environment. Now all-natural lawn products are being sold at big retailers such as Lowe's, Home Depot and Sears. (PDF) The Wall Street Journal Online, Gwendolyn Bounds, October 7, 2006 Winning the war on weeds: Every garden has its share of weeds, insects and diseases but of the three, weeds seem to require the greatest amount of work. The key to eliminating weeds is to deprive them of light, nutrients and water. You can do this by hoeing or hand weeding young, undesirable plants, applying mulch barriers to suppress light, and using drip irrigation to water your plants and not the weeds. NewsTimesLive.com Greater Danbury, Connecticut, Dawn Pettinelli, UConn Education extension, June 10, 2007 Dandelions? I think I already know the answer, but does anyone know of any ecofriendly tips for killing them? I've been digging them out 'til my back hurts......and the next day the yard will be covered with a new crop of blooms. I really don't like using harsh chemicals but wouldn't be above trying something less draconian......that wouldn't kill surrounding grass, if there is such a miracle out there, which I doubt. But you never know; Y!Answers has surprised me before! ..There is a tool called a weed puller... Yahoo! Answers: Best Answer - Chosen By Voters April, 2007 Bed, bark and beyond: Mulching is a word that is on nearly every gardener's lips at some time during the year. Philippa Foes-Lamb investigates the different types of mulch available. Conserving moisture is only one of several benefits that come from mulching our gardens. Some of the others include ... Suppressing weed growth in flower borders and among shrubs. The Nelson Mail, New Zealand, Philippa Foes-Lamb June 15, 2007 Thick on the ground: From deep shade to steep banks, ground covers solve pesky problems. The answer to many of these problem areas is to plant some sort of ground cover. Most of them spread relatively quickly to cover a substantial area of earth, and some — but not all — are even durable enough to be walked on. TheChronicleHerald.ca, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Jodi Delong July 8, 2007 That pesky weed – portulaca: A reader recently asked how she could eradicate the weed portulaca (also called common purslane) from her garden. Due to this weeds ability to produce numerous seeds once it has become established it is difficult to control. In home landscapes and gardens, this weed is generally managed by hand-weeding or applying a thick mulch. Star Journal June 18, 2007 How To Grow Sunflowers: Sunflower is the common seed name for the genus Helianthus. The sunflower is native to North America, and was used by early North American Indians for food and pressed to make hair oil. Meal from processed seed has been used for livestock feed... Weeds can be a problem for sunflowers. Weed control is practiced for the first four to five weeks after seed emergence. For the home garden, hand weeding and mulching are the best methods. AOL Journals April 29, 2007 Carpets of beautiful colour: Covering the ground with a dense carpet of flowering or foliage plants is a fairly recent planting technique designed initially to reduce the labour of weeding among plants. Many ground cover plants are also decorative in their own right, adding both attractive pools of colour and contrasting textures while softening edges along paths and kerbs and filling in between larger plants. UlsterHerald.com April 19, 2007 Looking for the ultimate tool for digging up bulbous weeds like wild garlic and taproot weeds? I'm looking for the ultimate tool for digging up bulbous weeds like wild garlic and taproot weeds. So far the asparagus knife (shaped like a straightened snake tongue attached to a handle) seems to work the best but this is very time consuming and requires a "pry angle" that requires space I do not always have... and the weed twister is a good idea. Yahoo! Answers: Best Answer - Chosen By Voters March, 2007 Ground ivy has just about taken over my lawn. Can you recommend anything to help me get it under control? Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea) is one of the most troublesome weeds in both lawns and garden beds. Also known as creeping Charlie or gill-over-the-ground (and many names not suitable for publication in a family newspaper), ground ivy is a member of the mint family. Q&A with Sandy Feather: Lawn cultivation, pesticides can KO ground ivy Post-Gazette.com March 31, 2007 Thrive or Die: Earth Kind roses are Texas tough - Painstaking to grow in humid East Texas, roses in the Angelina County Master Gardeners' trial garden will have to prove they're tough, not tedious, to earn an Earth Kind rating. Earth Kind is the designation given to hardy roses by the Texas A&M University Agricultural program for plants that consistently thrive without chemical intervention from fertilizers or pesticides. The Lufkin Daily News, Christine S. Diamond March 31, 2007 Spring Your Garden to Life: Fortunately there are many weed pulling tools out there. Examples are the weed hound and weed twister. Penny Lamb Homes Newsletter Feb. 2005 Indoor Garden Supply: In late winter, early spring, gardeners prepare indoor garden supply products for both their indoor and outdoor gardens. By having a good inventory of indoor garden supply products, gardeners can be ready to plant seeds, transfer plants from various pots and trim dead leaves and vines. For important outdoor supplies, consider keeping on hand shovels, rakes, hoes, hand tools, mulch, garden bags, tiller, rain gauge, shears, hand saws, trimmers, pruners, gloves, water hose, loppers, weed twister, sod cutter, and etc. The Zen of Weeding: An hour passes, then another. There is no world beyond this third of a suburban acre and the rhythm of pulling up crabgrass. Now the only solution, except to let nature take its unruly course, is to get down and dirty. Sweat is dripping onto my glasses. A blister is rising on a couple of fingertips. (See also Zen Weeding from Ergonica) The Boston Globe, John Powers September 21, 2003 Alternative Weed and Pest Control: For years, now we have heard about the negative impact of Pesticides on the environment. The professional users of pesticides are responsible applicators using them in a safe and appropriate manner. It has been the non-professional users who have gotten us in trouble...There are a lot of alternatives available, for example you can use a Dandelion Popper, Weed Twister, Ergo Weeder, Garden Hoe, Scuffle Hoe, Circle Hoe or Deck Flosser. Bruce Zimmerman brucezimmerman.com Weeding…Gardening's Necessary Evil: I enjoy—yes you read that correctly—I enjoy hand weeding! You see I'm an impatient gardener. I don't grow plants from seeds because I hate waiting for them to sprout. I need instant gratification! I buy plants already grown-up! When I plant an area I can see the fruits of my labor immediately and that also pertains to weeding. MyMotherLode.com Local News, Carolee James, Master Gardener April 29, 2006 Fight the war on weeds with tools: For small patches of weeds that spread by root, the best approach is to eliminate their food source — light — by cutting down the culprits and covering the space with black plastic and mulch. But a lawnmower or string trimmer used weekly can help considerably. If you can minimize photosynthesis, you will minimize growth. Each of us has our favorite weeding tool. For me, that is the CobraHead weeder. Citizen.com Fosters Online, Henry Homeyer July 8, 2007 Weapons of the Weed War: More gardeners are turning to Earth-friendly remedies and gadgets to wipe out weeds: These gadgets may be Earth friendly, but their names are anything but nice. They are called the Weed Dragon, the Dandelion Digger, the Weed Twister and the Infra-Weeder-Dandy-Destroyer. The Register-Guard, Lewis Taylor April 30, 2006 The Art of Weeding: Part 1 - A year-round strategy for organic weed control - Here are some helpful tips to make life with weeds a little easier. In this article, we'll discuss how weeds impact your garden and how to stop their advance. Weeding might be considered a nasty chore, but it's a great way to really get to know what's going on in your garden. Marion Owen, Fearless Weeder for PlanTea, Inc. and
Co-author of Chicken Soup for the Gardener's Soul
The Art of Weeding: Part 2 - A year-round strategy for organic weed control - In this article, we'll learn how to get rid of weeds, naturally, tools for the job and how weeds can even be good for you and your garden. In the garden, the bigger the weeds, the harder it is to control them. The first step to controlling weeds is to get into the habit of going on patrol in your garden. Marion Owen, Fearless Weeder for PlanTea, Inc. and
Co-author of Chicken Soup for the Gardener's Soul
A Primer on the disease Late Blight : There is no magic bullet for late blight. Good garden cleanup, crop rotations, and removing diseased plant material will all help; but the spores are so mobile that there are no guarantees. Removing all weedy varieties of nightshade is a good idea. It is also a good idea to pull any volunteer potato plants as soon as they appear, to minimize the possibility of infected plants spreading the disease. The Westside Gardner, FAQ Regarding Late Blight by Travis Saling Late blight devastating for tomatoes, potatoes: Late blight is one of the most devastating diseases of potato and tomato worldwide. It was responsible for the devastating Irish potato famine of the 1840s and has continued to be detrimental to potatoes and tomatoes today. - Volunteer potatoes and tomatoes can be a significant source of spores of the late blight fungus. All volunteers should be destroyed as quickly as possible by herbicides, chopping, or cultivation. The Register-Herald, Growing Things column, David Richmond August 4, 2007 Volunteer potatoes pose daunting threat to sugarbeet crops, University of Idaho weed scientist finds: For decades, Idaho's sugarbeet growers have been rotating their crops with potatoes. Now, a University of Idaho weed scientist says they may be unintentionally growing as many as 211 sacks of potatoes while they're raising sugarbeets. Morishita also found that the best time for hoeing out an average number of weedy potatoes was when tubers were just beginning to form underground-about a month after plant emergence. SeedQuest News, Twin Falls, Idaho, January 31, 2007 Pick A Peck of (Air) Potatoes: It’s potato-picking time! No, it’s not time to harvest the "roots" of your garden labors, but it is time to prevent the spread of one of our most difficult weed problems. Air Potatoes are a killer vine that can even out-compete kudzu. With spring’s arrival, it is ready to begin to grow over your favorite landscape plants and take over our roadsides and natural areas. University of Florida, Okeechobee County Extension Service, Dan Culbert - Extension Horticulture Agent March 7, 2004 Air Potato - Removing Air Potato from Your Property: This non-native, invasive vine--which produces large numbers of potato-like growths that grow into new plants--spreads even faster than kudzu! Locating and removing bulbils is easier during winter months--when plants are dormant--because air potato and other vegetation are not as dense as during summer. When air potato vines are growing up into trees or are mixed with desirable plants, cut or pull down the vines and destroy them. Remove as many bulbils as possible, as those left behind will produce new vines. University of Florida IFAS Extension, Solutions for your Life See Air Potato in Florida article in PDF format Kudzu Control Without Chemicals: Non-Herbicidal Methods, Tests, and Tools include more than half a dozen possibilities that are available today. The indented menu buttons at left, beginning with "Animal Grazing", discuss several general approaches. Details on Coalition tested methods, and their application to particular sites, are found throughout this website. Kokudzu.com Kudzu Control Without Chemicals Herbicides banned in 5 parks: Eugene is declaring about 2 percent of its park land an herbicide-free zone effective today as a pilot project to test whether city crews can manage without the chemicals. Children and pets are vulnerable to poisoning from herbicides, Kemple said. Both are low to the ground so they're more likely to be exposed. And children are developing, so there's more opportunity for chemicals to interrupt biological processes. The Register Guard, Eugene, Oregon, Diane Dietz, June 3, 2006 Moles in your garden? Download an e-book with 6 ecological methods used over the years to control moles and keep them from coming back! Only $4.95 for the book you can download now with no shipping charges. (See also mole control with the Weed Twister) Garden's Moles Tricks and Secrets to Get Rid of Them Companion Planting - a Complete Guide to Growing Healthy Plants: Organic methods to use companion plants to control pests without the need for toxic chemicals. Special e-book you can download for $9.57. Learn how to create an organic food system where your plants do the work and provide a healthier lifestyle for you and your family. Companion Planting - a Complete Guide to Growing Healthy Plants Pesticide-free park difficult but doable: Hecker, parks superintendent for the Lawrence, Kansas, city’s Parks and Recreation Department, has used one device called a “Flamer Machine” that burns weeds; mixed up batches of high-powered vinegar designed to replace pesticides such as Roundup; and researched a fancy-sounding device called the Waipuna Weed Control System, which sprays a hot foam of natural corn and coconut sugars to kill weeds. Lawrence Journal-World, Chad Lawhorn, June 18, 2006 From The Field - Crabgrass Breakthrough – What’s Going On?: This year, a surprising number of lawn care companies are reporting crabgrass breakthrough despite having made preemergent herbicide applications in the spring. In addition to treating the crabgrass, lawn care companies should also pay attention to caring for the customer by educating them about what may be causing this atypical level of crabgrass pressure. (See also the Weed Twister vs. Crabgrass) Lawn & Landscape Magazine, J. B. Toorish, August 28, 2006 Applying mulch, hand-pulling are effective ways of controlling weeds: It's not uncommon to have some rainfall in August and slightly lower temperatures that trigger weed germination. If the weeds are as thick as the hair on a dog's back you need to take steps now. MyWestTexas.com, Deborah Benge Frost, August 31, 2006 Try a Long-Handled Diamond Hoe for Weeding: Many of the hoes commonly used for weeding can strain your back, neck, shoulders, and arms because they force you to adopt a stooped position. Consider a long handled diamond hoe instead of what you currently use. University of Wisconsin Healthy Farmers, Healthy Profits Project, Dec. 2001; Second Edition.by Astrid Newenhouse, Bob Meyer, Marcia Miquelon and Larry Chapman
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